Born March 25th, 1900, the eighth and youngest child of the Reverend and Mrs. William James Howard of Washington, D.C., Ruth Winifred Howard was the first African American woman to complete a doctorate in psychology, having researched the development of 229 sets of triplets from their early infancy to 79 years of age. She received her Ph.D, entitled "A Study of the Development of Triplets", from the University of Minnesota in 1934. Her pioneering work was later published in the Journal of Psychology (1946) and the Journal of Genetic Psychology (1947). Shortly after earning her degree, Howard married eminent psychologist Albert Sidney Beckham, the first African American to hold the title of school psychologist, and moved to Chicago.
Ruth Winifred Howard's career embraced work with special needs' children at the school of Children's Provident Hospital, based in Cook County and the first African-American owned and operated hospital in America -- open to all, regardless of race. Her education, training, and work encompassed social work, nursing education, and developmental and clinical psychology. She was a graduate of Simmons College, where she studied social work, and she went on to study at Teachers College, Columbia University and Columbia University's School of Social Work (1929-1930), before transferring d to the University of Minnesota. Her educational role models included Drs. Florence Goodenough, Mary Shirley, Edna Heidbreder, and Edith Brod -- pioneering women psychologists who were receiving recognition and mentoring new women psychologists. As Howard's clinical practice grew, she pursued postdoctoral studies at the University of Chicago where she studied under additional renowned psychologists, among them: Drs. Robert Havinghurst, Carl Rogers, Helen Robinson, and Virginia Axline.
Howard was an active participant in the American Psychological Association, the International Council of Women Psychologists, the American Association of University Women, the National Association of College Women (an African American-based group), and the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom.
Interestingly very little has been written about Dr. Ruth Winifred Howard, though there are select pieces.
The following articles are drawn from Proquest Historical Newspapers, which informs and inspires classroom teaching and learning.
- 5,000 at Graduation: Colored High and Vocational Schools' Commencement. Many Scholarships Are Won. (1916, Jun 20). The Washington Post (1877-1922)
- Triplets Rotate Like Wheel, Mother Tells Reporter: Sarah, Alice and Goldsboro, One Of 300 Sets Of Triplets Studied By Dr. Ruth Howard To Earn Minnesota Degree. (1934, Nov 24). Afro-American (1893-)
- Doctors Take Nuptial Vows: Beckham - Howard Event Solemnized. (1934, Nov 24). The New York Amsterdam News (1922-1938)
- They're One Now. (1934, Dec 01). Afro-American (1893-)
- Beardon, B. (1934, Dec 08). New York Society. The Chicago Defender (National Edition) (1921-1967)
- Howard, R. (1937, Feb 27). Getting the Child To Help Around the House. The Chicago Defender (National Edition) (1921-1967)
- Howard. (1937, Mar 13). How Much Does A Mother Know About Her Child? The Chicago Defender (National Edition) (1921-1967)
- Howard, R. (1937, Mar 20). Why Do Children Lie? Perhaps This Will Tell. The Chicago Defender (National Edition) (1921-1967)
- Howard, R. (1937, Apr 03). Eating Habits In Young Children Big Problems. The Chicago Defender (National Edition) (1921-1967)
- Howard, R. (1937, Apr 10). The Child's Point Of View Should Be Considered. The Chicago Defender (National Edition) (1921-1967)
- Howard, R. (1937, Apr 17). Wholesome Outlets Must Be Provided For Children. The Chicago Defender (National Edition) (1921-1967)
- NYA Health Program In Operation. (1937, Jul 03). The Chicago Defender (National Edition) (1921-1967)
- Y.W. Girls Club Raises Queries Of Wide Interest: Dr. Ruth Howard Is Guest Speaker. (1938, Feb 19). The Chicago Defender (National Edition) (1921-1967)
- Ackerman, P. V. [Obituary for Dr. Ruth Winifred Howard]. (1997, Feb 22). The Washington Post (1974-)
- McKenzie, Nichole J. “African/Black Psychology: A Qualitative Investigation of Distinguished Black Psychologists.” [Pepperdine University] ProQuest Dissertations Publishing, 2012.
- Yellow Daffodils, Courtesy pxhere
- Special News Slide, Courtesy Gottesman Libraries
Need to keep current, look to the past, teach a topic? The Everett Cafe features daily postings of news from around the world, and also promotes awareness of historical events from an educational context. Be sure to check the news postings on Learning at the Library, where you can delve into history.